How to determine available authentication methods

Determine available authentication methods on the specified OpenSSH server.

Determine authentication methods on the OpenSSH server installed on the Debian Buster using Vagrant.

$ timeout 5 \ 
  ssh -v debian : 2>&1 | \
  grep "Authenticating to\|Authentications that can continue:"
debug1: Authenticating to 127.0.0.1:2222 as 'vagrant'
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey

Determine authentication methods on multiple chained OpenSSH servers.

$ timeout 5 \
  ssh -v -J [email protected] 192.0.2.14 : 2>&1 | \
  grep "Authenticating to\|Authentications that can continue:"
debug1: Authenticating to 192.0.2.2:22 as 'milosz'
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey
debug1: Authenticating to 192.0.2.14:22 as 'milosz'
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey

Determine authentication methods on the OpenSSH server installed on the localhost.

$ timeout 5 \
  ssh -v localhost : 2>&1 | \
  grep "Authenticating to\|Authentications that can continue:"
debug1: Authenticating to localhost:22 as 'laboratory'
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,password,keyboard-interactive

Determine authentication methods on some random OpenSSH server installed on an outdated CentOS operating system.

$ timeout 5 \
  ssh -v 192.0.2.82 : 2>&1 | \
  grep "Authenticating to\|Authentications that can continue:"
debug1: Authenticating to 192.0.2.82:22 as 'milosz'
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,password

These commands are very useful to verify the correctness of the OpenSSH server configuration.